My additional way








  • Enlarger
    It is the highest cost in darkroom tools. but It is necessary to enlargement printing.
  • Enlargement lens
    50mm lens from 135 size film, 80mm lens from 6x6 size negative, it is standard.
  • Easel mask
    It is for holding paper.
  • Focusing rupe
    It is for focusing image on paper.
  • Enlarger timer
    It is for controlling exposure time.
  • Tray
    Four are necessary, for filling with developer, stop bath, fixer, and washing water.  You must distinguish between for developer and for others.
  • Tweezers
    Made of plastic, steel or bamboo for holding paper during wet processing. Same pieces as trays are necessary and you must distinguish too.
  • a few measure cup.
    It is for measuring with each solutions.
  • Thermometer
  • Darkroom clock
  • Sponge
    "For photography" is best.
  • Safety light
Processing Chemicals
  • Developer
    For example, Dektol(Kodak)
  • Stop bath solution
    1.5% acetic acid solution.
  • Fixer
    Contains with thioanmoniumsulfide, Kodak rapid fixer and Fuji super fujifix, are better.   You must distinguish for film and for paper.

Photographic paper

  • RC paper
    Resin-coated paper.  Washing time is shorter.   But deepest area density is weak compare with FB papers. Kodak polymax RC, Fuji bromide WP, Oriental RP, etc.
  • FB paper
    Fiber-based paper.  The washing time is needed long and the drying is difficult compare with RC paper, because its surface is not coated. But, you obtain prints that have deepest black.   It is very beautiful. Kodak elite fine-art, Oriental new seagull G, Ilford multigrade FB, etc.

If you want to know more detail, click here


Contact printing

"Contact print" is the print that is exposured to put negatives directly on a paper.
You can confirm the images on negatives.


  • Enlarger or light source.
  • Non-reflection glass board or the contact printer.
  • RC paper.
  • ...and processing chemicals.


1. Prepare developer, stop bath, and fixer in tray, and control a solution temperature to 20 C (68 F)

2. Put a newspaper or a magazine on horizontal board (not use enlarger only).

Below process under safe light lighting!!

3. Take out a paper from the package, and put on the newspaper or magazine, or set on the contact printer, the emulsion surface is upper.

4. Put negatives on this paper, film base side is upper.

5. Put glass board on these.

6. Turn on the enlarger lamp or the light source with red filter to confirm lighting for all area of the paper.

7. Take off the red filter and start exposing.

8. Remove the glass and the negatives on the paper.

9. Insert the paper to developer's tray and start timer.

10. This process continue 90 seconds with stirring.

11. About 5 seconds before 90 seconds, pick out the paper and insert to stop bath. This part is for 5 to 20 seconds.

12. Pick out the paper and insert to fixer's tray. The fixing time are for 2 to 3 minutes (rapid type) with stirring.

13. When the fixing time is finished, pick out the paper and start washing.


You can turn on the light from here.

14. Insert the paper to the tray for washing, start washing about 5 minutes to use running water

15. Wipe drops from the surface of the paper, then drying.

*Choosing exposure time is described in the next part.


Enlargement printing

The larger print size is more beautiful than the small print. Let try enlarging!!
8x10 and 11x14 are popular.



1. Attach a enlargement lens to a enlarger.

  • You must confirm that no dust is being on the surface of lens.   If dusts are being on the lens surface, remove it for blower.

2. Set a negative to negative career of the enlarger.

  • You must confirm that no dust is being on the surface of a negative.  If dusts are being on the negative, remove it for blower, too.

3. Prepare developer, stop bath, and fixer in tray, and control a solution temperature to 20 C (68 F).


Below process under safe light lighting!!

4. Set a selective toggle of the enlargement timer to "FOCUS", you can project the image onto the easel mask on the baseboard of the enlarger.  Next, adjust the image size and focus for focusing rupe.

  • Set aperture of the lens to a few steps from small number step on the aperture ring.
    If small number is F2.8, F5.6 to F8.0. If it is F5.6, F11 to F16.


5. Set a selective toggle of the enlargement timer to "TIMER(OFF)".

6. Take out a paper from the package and set to the easel mask.

iKI(1K)7. Select exposure time

  • Use a small piece of photographic paper, between one-eighth and a quarter of 8x10 size.   Set it to the easel mask, cover the paper with no-light-through things as board except a part of it.   Then, expose it for one to three seconds.  Next, slide the covering thing to decrease the covered area, and expose again.
    Covered area is none, start development process as same process of contact printing.   As a result, you can obtain a step print (as the right image).   You can choose a proper exposure time referring this step print.

8. Set proper exposure time to the timer.

9. Expose the image to the paper to turn on the exposing switch of the timer, and start wet processing.(see the contact print part)