My additional way






Equipments for film development.



  • Roll film tank and reel.
    I recommend the Nicole type tank and reel, for example, LPL Stainless Tank. a few measure cup.
  • Few cups
    For developer, Stop bath solution, fixer, or hypo clearing solution.
  • Thermometer
  • Darkroom Timer or Clock
  • Film picker (film retriever)
    It is to pull a tip of the film which I has contained in a Patrone.
  • Darkroom or dark bag
  • Sponge
    A smooth sponge for a photograph.


  • Developer
    D-76,T-max,and others.
  • Stop bath solution
    water, 1.5% acetic acid solution, or Indicator Stop Bath.
  • Fixer
    I recommend it used ammonium thiosulfate, Kodak Rapid Fixer and similar.
  • Hypo-clearing solution
    2% sodium sulfite (Anhydrrous) solution, Kodak Hypo Clearing Agent,...


How To Develop

1. Make chemicals and control solution temperature, generally 20 degrees C (68 degs. F).

  • Following each packages of films or chemicals
  • Please do not make developer after stopbath and fixer when I use the same scalpel cups for a preparation of a medicine. Because acid has mixed in developing solution, and there isn't developing ability.


2. Roll the reel with film in DARKROOM OR DARKBAG.

  • Picking from a magazine use with Film Picker (film retriever), then start rolling.


Development start.(under room lamps)

a(3K) 3. Pours developer from pouring gate of tank, start timer, knocks at bottom of tank on for example a desk*, stirs continuously from 30 seconds to a minute.

  • *Because it is removed bubbles on surface of film.
  • Stirring:  Examples of LPL tank, headstand tank, and stop a moment, and return (refer to the right fig.).


4. Passes from 30 seconds to a minute, after that stirs two times in 5 seconds every 30 seconds.

5. Passes development time, discharges developer from pouring gate of tank, next pours the stop bath solution.

  • Knocks at bottom of tank for a desk, stir continuously during 30 seconds.


6. Discharges the stop bath and pours fixer.

  • Stirring method is same of case of developer.


7. Passes fixing time, about from 3 to 5 minutes, discharges solution, and wash films from 30 seconds to a minute to use running water.

8. Soaks a film to hypo-clearing solution during a few minutes, then washes above 5 minutes to use running water.



9. Soaks a film, wash finished, to drops removing solution during 30 seconds, hang film after that pick up it from reel, wait until drying film.

10. To finish drying, cut a film, and files it.